Category:Gospel of John (text)

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Rylands Papyrus (ca. 125 CE)

The Gospel of John (see Online Text) is a New Testament document.



The divinity of the Christ: A Jewish God vs a Pagan God

(a) Jesus as the divine Word (Logos) of God: The Prologue.

“In the beginning (en arche; be-reshit) was the Word (logos), and the Word (logos) was with the God, and divine was the Word (logos)” (Jn 1:1). “All things came into being through him… His own people did not accept him… And the Word (logos) became flesh… No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father’s heart who has made him known” (Jn 1:1-18).

pre-existence / co-existence incarnation creation vs. immanence

The Biblical Foundations of the concept of the Logos

WORD (logos) and WISDOM (sophia)

“In the beginning (or, with the beginning: Hebrew be-reshit; Greek en arche) God created the heavens and the earth” (Gen 1:1). Then God “said” and everything was.

“The Lord by wisdom (sophia) founded the earth (Prov 3:19). “The Lord made me the beginning (reshit) of His work” (Prov 8:22). “I was beside Him as a master worker” (Prov 8:30).

“By the Word (logos) of the Lord the heavens were made and all their host by the breath of his mouth… He spoke, and [the world] came to be; he commanded, and it stood firm” (Ps 33:6-9)

The Theology of the Word of God (the Targums, Aramaic translation of the Bible)

“The Word of God created the heavens and the earth” (tg N Gen 1:1) “The Word of God is the light of the world” (tgN Exod 12:42) “The Word of God appeared to Abraham” (tgM Gen 18:1) etc. etc.

The Theology of the Wisdom of God (Wisdom of Solomon)

“Wisdom is the fashioner of every thing…” (7:22). “She is a breath of the power of God and a pure emanation of the Glory of the Almighty… She is reflection of eternal light, a spotless mirror of the working of God, and image of His goodness…” (7:25-26) “Wisdom protected Abraham… rescued from the troubles those who served her… brought the Israelites over the Red Sea… etc. etc.

The identification of Wisdom and Word (Philo of Alexandria)

The Word is God in the act of creating the universe… Like an architect, who is about to built a city, God first made an incorporeal model in His own mind like a “son”, and then built the universe according to this image… The universe was made in the image of the image of God… The image of God is His logos or Wisdom… The Logos is the instrument that God used to create the universe; is the heavenly High Priest…

Why is Jesus is called the Logos and not Sophia?

(a) Logos was not an ambiguous term: the Logos (unlike Wisdom, Sophia) was believed by everybody to be uncreated and divine.

The created Wisdom (Sirach and Baruch).

“Wisdom (sophia) was created before all things… came from the mouth of God… She found a dwelling place on earth… All this is the book of the covenant of the Most High” (Sir 24)

The heavenly Wisdom (1 Enoch)

“Wisdom could not find a place in which she could dwell… she found no dwelling place. So Wisdom returned to Heaven and Iniquity took her place on earth” (1 En 42). Wisdom will be revealed only at the end of time at the coming of the Messiah, the Son of Man.

(b) Logos is a masculine term, while Sophia is feminine.

Jesus, the divine Name of God: The title “I AM”

When you have lifted up the Son of Man [=the Angel of the Lord], then you will realize that I AM [Gr. ego eimi]… Very truly, I tell you, before Abraham was, I AM (John 8:28,58; see also 13:19; 18:5).

The Biblical Foundation: The Name of God revealed to Moses.

The Angel of the Lord appeared to [Moses] in a flame of fire out of a bush… [The Angel reveals to be GOD himself] “I am the God of your father, The God of Abraham”… Moses said to God: “What is [your] name?... “I AM… Thus you shall say to the Israelites: I AM (Gr. ego eimi) has sent me to you” (Exodus 3)

Jesus was called "Angel" not because he was an angel but because he was sent by God.

Everything in the Gospel of John is a revelation of the identity of the Son.

The problem of authority

The Gospel of the beloved disciple.

(a) The controversy with Thomas.

In the Gospel of John, Thomas is the disciple who never understands and is the last to believe.

The true “beloved disciple” is John, not Thomas.

(b) The controversy with the family of Jesus.

“For not even his brothers believed in him” (7:5). The beloved disciple is the adopted son of Mary. “Woman, here is your son. Then [Jesus] said to the disciple: Here is your mother” (19:25-27)

(c) The relationship with Peter.

The “younger” disciple is the first to reach the empty tomb but waits for Peter to enter and believe (20:1-8). John is “younger” and “smarter” than Peter, but recognizes the authority of Peter.

Peter was the one appointed by Jesus as the head of the community"

John 21:15-17 (NRSV_ -- 15 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Feed my lambs." 16 A second time he said to him, "Simon son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Tend my sheep." 17 He said to him the third time, "Simon son of John, do you love me?" Peter felt hurt because he said to him the third time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep.

John's message is not a "new" or a "secret" knowledge

How to explain a message that was never heard before? 

The answer is that it is neither a new revelation (cf. Acts 10-11) nor a secret knowledge given by Jesus to the beloved disciple alone (like in Thomas). It was a new understanding in the Holy Spirit by the community of the beloved disciple.

“The Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and remind you of all that I have said to you” (Jn14:26). When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own, but will speak whatever he hears, and he will declare to you things that are to come” (16:13).

“Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up”… After [Jesus] was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said so; and they believed the Scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken. (2:19-22)

The term “Son of Man,” like “Son of David”, from “title” becomes one of the “functions” of the Logos

“God has given the Son authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man” (5:27). Jesus is called the Son of Man because he is “the Judge” (cf. 9:35-38), exactly as he is called the Son of David because he is “the King.”

Jesus, however, is not identified with the Father. Jesus is as divine as the Father. Jesus may now be called theos (Jn 1:1; 20:28).

Love (not knowledge) is the way to salvation

Love is the most distinctive feature of the disciples in Christ:

John 3:16-17 -- For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life. 17 "Indeed, God did not send the Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.
John 13:34-35 (NRSV) -- 34 I give you a new commandment, that you love one another. Just as I have loved you, you also should love one another. 35 By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another."
John 15 (NRSV) -- 9 As the Father has loved me, so I have loved you; abide in my love. 10 If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love, just as I have kept my Father's commandments and abide in his love. 11 I have said these things to you so that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be complete. 12 "This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you. 13 No one has greater love than this, to lay down one's life for one's friends. 14 You are my friends if you do what I command you.

The Gospel of John in Scholarship

The Gospel of John in Fiction


Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

  • Peter's Denial (II) (18:15-18) // Mark 14:66-72); Matthew 26:69-75; Luke 22:56-62;

Chapter 19

  • Burial of Jesus (19:38-42) // Mark 15:42–47; Matthew 27:57-61; Luke 23:50-56

Chapter 20

  • Empty Tomb (20:1-10) // Mark 16:1-8; Matthew 28:1-8; Luke 24:1-12
  • Appearances of Jesus (I) (20:11–29) // Cf. 1 Corinthians 15:3–9; Matthew 28:8–20; Luke 24:13–49; Acts 1:1–11; Mark 16:9-18

Chapter 21

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Pages in category "Gospel of John (text)"

The following 174 pages are in this category, out of 174 total.