< Call of the First Disciples -- Peter's Mother-in-Law -- Choosing of the Twelve -- Raising of Jairus' Daughter -- Walking on Water -- Peter's Confession -- First Prediction of the Passion -- Transfiguration of Jesus -- Rich Young Man -- Cursing the Fig Tree -- Last Supper -- Arrest of Jesus -- Peter's Denial -- Empty Tomb -- Appearances of Jesus -- Gathering of the Twelve at Jerusalem -- Christian Pentecost -- Peter's Preaching at Jerusalem -- Peter's Preaching at Rome -- Quo vadis? -- Martyrdom of Peter -- Relics of Peter -- Peter in Literature & Arts -- Peter in Scholarship >
- 1 Overview
- 2 Peter, in ancient sources
- 3 Peter, in the arts
- 4 Peter in scholarship
- 5 Related categories
- 6 External links
The character of Peter is known exclusively from Christian sources. His figure is associated with numerous events of the life of Jesus of Nazareth. He is also presented as a major leader of the nascent Christian movement.
The call of Peter
In the Gospel of Mark and in the Gospel of Matthew, Simon and his brother Andrew are introduced as "fishermen" whom Jesus met while "passing along the Sea of Galilee" (Mk 1:16). Jesus invited them to follow him and "fish for people" (1:17). They "immediately left their nets and followed him" (1:18). The same did, immediately later, the sons of Zebedee, James and John. Then they all went to Capernaeum, where "the house of Simon and Andrew" was (Mk 1:29). Simon was married; his "mother-in-law was in bed with a fever" but Jesus healed her (1:30-31). The next morning, Jesus got up and went out to pray. "Simon and his companions hunted for him [until] they found him". They left Capernaum and "went throughout Galilee" (1:35-39).
In the Gospel of Luke, The order of events is reversed. Jesus first entered "the house of Simon" and healed his "mother-in-law". Then he met Simon on "his" boat.
According to the Gospel of John, Peter and his brother Andrew were from Bethsaida in Galilee (Jn 1:44). It was Andrew, a former disciple of John the Baptist, who first met Jesus and then "found his brother Simon [Peter]" and brought him to Jesus, saying: "We have found the Messiah" (Jn 1:35-41).
According to the Gospel of Mark, when Jesus appointed Twelve of his disciples as "apostles": "Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter)" is listed first. His name was changed by Jesus himself (3:13-19).
The Gospel of Matthew provides a similar list of the Twelve but does not relate the name Peter to Jesus' decision. Simon "is called Peter" even before meeting Jesus" (4:18).
In the Gospel of John the name Peter was imposed by Jesus on him as soon as he met him (Jn 1:42).
Accompanying Jesus in the House of Jairus
According to the Gospel of Mark, when Jesus went to the house of Jairus to heal his daughter, "he allowed no one to follow him except Peter and James and John the brother of James" (Mk 5.37)
The "confession" of Peter
After asking his disciples: "Who do people say that I am?... Jesus asked them, But who do you say that I am? Peter answered him, You are the Christ.” (Mk 8:27-30). But when Jesus added that "the Son of Man must undergo great suffering... Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. But turning and seeing his disciples, [Jesus] rebuked Peter and said, Get behind me, Satan! For you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of man (8:31-33).
In the Gospel of Thomas, Peter is said to have answered: "You are a righteous angel" (13).
Present at the Transfiguration of Jesus
According to the Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, Peter was with James son of Zebedee and John, one of three disciples who were present at the Transfiguration of Jesus. He was the one who is somehow teased for asking Jesus to "make three tents, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah."
The Denial of Jesus
The leader of the early Church
The Acts of Apostles and the letters of Paul are rich of details also about the role of Peter after the death of Jesus and depict him as of the leaders of the early Jesus movement.
Two letters in the New Testament, 1 Peter and 2 Peter, are attributed to Peter. The Gospel of Mark is also ascribed to him (as Mark was his disciple and interpreter). Several other ancient Christian texts bear his name-—the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Revelation of Peter, and Judgement of Peter
Peter, in ancient sources
Choosing of the Twelve -- Mark 3:16 -- He appointed the twelve: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter)...
Raising of Jairus' Daughter -- Mark 5:37 -- And he allowed no one to follow him except Peter and James and John the brother of James...
Peter's Confession -- Mark 8:29 -- And he asked them, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter answered him, “You are the Christ”...  And he said this plainly. And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him.  But turning and seeing his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, “Get behind me, Satan! For you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of man.”
Transfiguration of Jesus -- Mark 9:2 -- And after six days Jesus took with him Peter and James and John, and led them up a high mountain by themselves. And he was transfigured before them...  And Peter said to Jesus, “Rabbi, it is good that we are here. Let us make three tents, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah.”
Rich Young Man -- Mark 10:28 -- Peter began to say to him, “See, we have left everything and followed you.”
Cursing the Fig Tree -- Mark 11:21 -- And Peter remembered and said to him, “Rabbi, look! The fig tree that you cursed has withered.”
Eschatological Discourse -- Mark 13:3 And as he sat on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately,
Peter's Denial (I) -- Mark 14:29 -- Peter said to him, “Even though they all fall away, I will not"... 
Arrest of Jesus -- Mark 14:33 -- And he took with him Peter and James and John, and began to be greatly distressed and troubled. Mark.14.37 And he came and found them sleeping, and he said to Peter, “Simon, are you asleep? Could you not watch one hour?
Trial of Jesus before the High Priest -- Mark.14.54 And Peter had followed him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the high priest. And he was sitting with the guards and warming himself at the fire.
Peter's Denial -- Mark.14.66 -- And as Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant girls of the high priest came,  and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him and said, “You also were with the Nazarene, Jesus”...  But again he denied it. And after a little while the bystanders again said to Peter, “Certainly you are one of them, for you are a Galilean”...  And immediately the rooster crowed a second time. And Peter remembered how Jesus had said to him, “Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” And he broke down and wept.
Empty Tomb -- Mark 16:7 -- But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he is going before you to Galilee. There you will see him, just as he told you.”
Call of the First Disciples -- Matt.4.18 While walking by the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon (who is called Peter) and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen.
Peter's Mother-in-Law -- Matt.8.14 And when Jesus entered Peter’s house, he saw his mother-in-law lying sick with a fever.
Choosing of the Twelve -- Matt 10:2 -- The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother...
Walking on Water -- Matt.14.28 -- And Peter answered him, “Lord, if it is you, command me to come to you on the water.”  He said, “Come.” So Peter got out of the boat and walked on the water and came to Jesus.
Tradition of the Elders -- Matt.15.15 -- But Peter said to him, “Explain the parable to us.”
Peter's Confession -- Matt.16.16 -- Simon Peter replied, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” Matt.16.18 And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. Matt.16.22 And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him, saying, “Far be it from you, Lord! This shall never happen to you.” Matt.16.23 But he turned and said to Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a hindrance to me. For you are not setting your mind on the things of God, but on the things of man.”
Transfiguration of Jesus -- Matt.17.1 -- And after six days Jesus took with him Peter and James, and John his brother, and led them up a high mountain by themselves. Matt.17.4 And Peter said to Jesus, “Lord, it is good that we are here. If you wish, I will make three tents here, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah.” Matt.17.24 When they came to Capernaum, the collectors of the half-shekel tax went up to Peter and said, “Does your teacher not pay the tax?”
Brother Who Sins -- Matt 18:21 -- Then Peter came up and said to him, “Lord, how often will my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? As many as seven times?”
Rich Young Man -- Matt.19.27 Then Peter said in reply, “See, we have left everything and followed you. What then will we have?”
Peter's Denial (I) -- Matt.26.33 Peter answered him, “Though they all fall away because of you, I will never fall away”...  Peter said to him, “Even if I must die with you, I will not deny you!” And all the disciples said the same.
Arrest of Jesus -- Matt.26.37 -- And taking with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, he began to be sorrowful and troubled...  And he came to the disciples and found them sleeping. And he said to Peter, “So, could you not watch with me one hour?
Trial of Jesus (I) -- Matt.26.58 -- And Peter was following him at a distance, as far as the courtyard of the high priest, and going inside he sat with the guards to see the end.
Peter's Denial (II) -- Matt.26.69 -- Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. And a servant girl came up to him and said, “You also were with Jesus the Galilean”...  After a little while the bystanders came up and said to Peter, “Certainly you too are one of them, for your accent betrays you”...  And Peter remembered the saying of Jesus, “Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” And he went out and wept bitterly.
Call of the First Disciples -- Luke 5:8 -- But when Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus’ knees, saying, “Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord.”
Choosing of the Twelve -- Luke 6:14 -- Simon, whom he named Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James and John, and Philip, and Bartholomew,
Bleeding Woman -- Luke 8:45 -- And Jesus said, “Who was it that touched me?” When all denied it, Peter said, “Master, the crowds surround you and are pressing in on you!”
Raising of Jairus' Daughter -- Luke 8:51 -- And when he came to the house, he allowed no one to enter with him, except Peter and John and James, and the father and mother of the child.
Peter's Confession -- Luke 9:20 -- Then he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” And Peter answered, “The Christ of God.”
Transfiguration of Jesus -- Luke 9:28 -- Now about eight days after these sayings he took with him Peter and John and James and went up on the mountain to pray. Luke.9.32 Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, but when they became fully awake they saw his glory and the two men who stood with him. Luke.9.33 And as the men were parting from him, Peter said to Jesus, “Master, it is good that we are here. Let us make three tents, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah”—not knowing what he said.
Unfaithful Servant -- Luke 12:41 -- Peter said, “Lord, are you telling this parable for us or for all?”
Rich Young Man -- Luke 18:28 -- And Peter said, “See, we have left our homes and followed you.”
Last Supper -- Luke 22:8 -- So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat it.”
Peter's Denial (I) -- Luke 22:33 -- Peter said to him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death.”  Jesus said, “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow this day, until you deny three times that you know me.”
Trial of Jesus before the High Priest -- Luke 22:54 -- Then they seized him and led him away, bringing him into the high priest’s house, and Peter was following at a distance.
Peter's Denial (II) -- Luke 22:55 -- And when they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat down among them...  And a little later someone else saw him and said, “You also are one of them.” But Peter said, “Man, I am not”...  But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about.” And immediately, while he was still speaking, the rooster crowed.  And the Lord turned and looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the saying of the Lord, how he had said to him, “Before the rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.”
Empty Tomb -- Luke 24:12 -- But Peter rose and ran to the tomb; stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths by themselves; and he went home marveling at what had happened.
Cf. Peter's Confession -- Thomas 13 -- Jesus said to his disciples, "Compare me to something and tell me what I am like." Simon Peter said to him, "You are like a just messenger." Matthew said to him, "You are like a wise philosopher." Thomas said to him, "Teacher, my mouth is utterly unable to say what you are like."
Call of the First Disciples -- John 1:40 -- One of the two who heard John speak and followed Jesus was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother...  He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “So you are Simon the son of John? You shall be called Cephas” (which means Peter)...  Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter...
< Feeding the 5000 -- John 6:8 -- One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him... >
Words of Eternal Life -- John 6:68 -- Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life...
Last Supper -- John.13.6 He came to Simon Peter, who said to him, “Lord, do you wash my feet?” John.13.8 Peter said to him, “You shall never wash my feet.” Jesus answered him, “If I do not wash you, you have no share with me.” John.13.9 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not my feet only but also my hands and my head!” John.13.24 so Simon Peter motioned to him to ask Jesus of whom he was speaking. John.13.36 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, where are you going?” Jesus answered him, “Where I am going you cannot follow me now, but you will follow afterward.” John.13.37 Peter said to him, “Lord, why can I not follow you now? I will lay down my life for you.”
Arrest of Jesus -- John 18:10 -- Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant and cut off his right ear. (The servant’s name was Malchus.)
Trial of Jesus before the High Priest -- John 18:11 -- So Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword into its sheath; shall I not drink the cup that the Father has given me?”
Peter's Denial -- John.18.15 -- Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. Since that disciple was known to the high priest, he entered with Jesus into the court of the high priest,  but Peter stood outside at the door. So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the servant girl who kept watch at the door, and brought Peter in.  The servant girl at the door said to Peter, “You also are not one of this man’s disciples, are you?” He said, “I am not.”  Now the servants and officers had made a charcoal fire, because it was cold, and they were standing and warming themselves. Peter also was with them, standing and warming himself...  Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. So they said to him, “You also are not one of his disciples, are you?” He denied it and said, “I am not.”  One of the servants of the high priest, a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked, “Did I not see you in the garden with him?”  Peter again denied it, and at once a rooster crowed.
Empty Tomb -- John 20:2 -- So she ran and went to Simon Peter and the other disciple, the one whom Jesus loved, and said to them, “They have taken the Lord out of the tomb, and we do not know where they have laid him.” John.20.3 So Peter went out with the other disciple, and they were going toward the tomb. John.20.4 Both of them were running together, but the other disciple outran Peter and reached the tomb first. John.20.6 Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb. He saw the linen cloths lying there,
Appearances of Jesus -- John 21:2 -- Simon Peter, Thomas (called the Twin), Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together.  Simon Peter said to them, “I am going fishing.” They said to him, “We will go with you.” They went out and got into the boat, but that night they caught nothing. John.21.7 That disciple whom Jesus loved therefore said to Peter, “It is the Lord!” When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he put on his outer garment, for he was stripped for work, and threw himself into the sea. John.21.11 So Simon Peter went aboard and hauled the net ashore, full of large fish, 153 of them. And although there were so many, the net was not torn. John.21.15 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?” He said to him, “Yes, Lord; you know that I love you.” He said to him, “Feed my lambs.” John.21.17 He said to him the third time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” Peter was grieved because he said to him the third time, “Do you love me?” and he said to him, “Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him, “Feed my sheep.
Second Conclusion -- John 21:20 -- Peter turned and saw the disciple whom Jesus loved following them, the one who had been reclining at table close to him and had said, “Lord, who is it that is going to betray you?”  When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, “Lord, what about this man?”
Acts.1.13 And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot and Judas the son of James. Acts.1.15 In those days Peter stood up among the brothers (the company of persons was in all about 120) and said,
Acts.2.14 But Peter, standing with the eleven, lifted up his voice and addressed them, “Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and give ear to my words. Acts.2.37 Now when they heard this they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “Brothers, what shall we do?” Acts.2.38 And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
Acts.3.1 Now Peter and John were going up to the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour. Acts.3.3 Seeing Peter and John about to go into the temple, he asked to receive alms. Acts.3.4 And Peter directed his gaze at him, as did John, and said, “Look at us.” Acts.3.6 But Peter said, “I have no silver and gold, but what I do have I give to you. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise up and walk!” Acts.3.11 While he clung to Peter and John, all the people ran together to them in the portico called Solomon’s, astounded. Acts.3.12 And when Peter saw it he addressed the people: “Men of Israel, why do you wonder at this, or why do you stare at us, as though by our own power or piety we have made him walk?
Acts.4.8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them, “Rulers of the people and elders, Acts.4.13 Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived that they were uneducated, common men, they were astonished. And they recognized that they had been with Jesus. Acts.4.19 But Peter and John answered them, “Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you rather than to God, you must judge,
Acts.5.3 But Peter said, “Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back for yourself part of the proceeds of the land? Acts.5.8 And Peter said to her, “Tell me whether you sold the land for so much.” And she said, “Yes, for so much.” Acts.5.9 But Peter said to her, “How is it that you have agreed together to test the Spirit of the Lord? Behold, the feet of those who have buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out.”
Acts.5.15 so that they even carried out the sick into the streets and laid them on cots and mats, that as Peter came by at least his shadow might fall on some of them.
Acts.5.29 But Peter and the apostles answered, “We must obey God rather than men.
Acts.8.14 Now when the apostles at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John,
Acts.8.20 But Peter said to him, “May your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain the gift of God with money!
Acts.9.32 Now as Peter went here and there among them all, he came down also to the saints who lived at Lydda. Acts.9.34 And Peter said to him, “Aeneas, Jesus Christ heals you; rise and make your bed.” And immediately he rose.
Acts.9.38 Since Lydda was near Joppa, the disciples, hearing that Peter was there, sent two men to him, urging him, “Please come to us without delay.” Acts.9.39 So Peter rose and went with them. And when he arrived, they took him to the upper room. All the widows stood beside him weeping and showing tunics and other garments that Dorcas made while she was with them. Acts.9.40 But Peter put them all outside, and knelt down and prayed; and turning to the body he said, “Tabitha, arise.” And she opened her eyes, and when she saw Peter she sat up.
Acts.10.5 And now send men to Joppa and bring one Simon who is called Peter. Acts.10.9 The next day, as they were on their journey and approaching the city, Peter went up on the housetop about the sixth hour to pray. Acts.10.13 And there came a voice to him: “Rise, Peter; kill and eat.” Acts.10.14 But Peter said, “By no means, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean.” Acts.10.17 Now while Peter was inwardly perplexed as to what the vision that he had seen might mean, behold, the men who were sent by Cornelius, having made inquiry for Simon’s house, stood at the gate Acts.10.18 and called out to ask whether Simon who was called Peter was lodging there. Acts.10.19 And while Peter was pondering the vision, the Spirit said to him, “Behold, three men are looking for you. Acts.10.21 And Peter went down to the men and said, “I am the one you are looking for. What is the reason for your coming?” Acts.10.25 When Peter entered, Cornelius met him and fell down at his feet and worshiped him. Acts.10.26 But Peter lifted him up, saying, “Stand up; I too am a man.” Acts.10.32 Send therefore to Joppa and ask for Simon who is called Peter. He is lodging in the house of Simon, a tanner, by the sea.’ Acts.10.34 So Peter opened his mouth and said: “Truly I understand that God shows no partiality, Acts.10.44 While Peter was still saying these things, the Holy Spirit fell on all who heard the word. Acts.10.45 And the believers from among the circumcised who had come with Peter were amazed, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was poured out even on the Gentiles. Acts.10.46 For they were hearing them speaking in tongues and extolling God. Then Peter declared, Acts.11.2 So when Peter went up to Jerusalem, the circumcision party criticized him, saying, Acts.11.4 But Peter began and explained it to them in order: Acts.11.7 And I heard a voice saying to me, ‘Rise, Peter; kill and eat.’ Acts.11.13 And he told us how he had seen the angel stand in his house and say, ‘Send to Joppa and bring Simon who is called Peter;
Acts.12.3 and when he saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded to arrest Peter also. This was during the days of Unleavened Bread. Acts.12.5 So Peter was kept in prison, but earnest prayer for him was made to God by the church. Acts.12.6 Now when Herod was about to bring him out, on that very night, Peter was sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains, and sentries before the door were guarding the prison. Acts.12.7 And behold, an angel of the Lord stood next to him, and a light shone in the cell. He struck Peter on the side and woke him, saying, “Get up quickly.” And the chains fell off his hands. Acts.12.11 When Peter came to himself, he said, “Now I am sure that the Lord has sent his angel and rescued me from the hand of Herod and from all that the Jewish people were expecting.” Acts.12.14 Recognizing Peter’s voice, in her joy she did not open the gate but ran in and reported that Peter was standing at the gate. Acts.12.16 But Peter continued knocking, and when they opened, they saw him and were amazed. Acts.12.18 Now when day came, there was no little disturbance among the soldiers over what had become of Peter.
Acts.15.7 And after there had been much debate, Peter stood up and said to them, “Brothers, you know that in the early days God made a choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel and believe.
1Cor.1.12 What I mean is that each one of you says, “I follow Paul,” or “I follow Apollos,” or “I follow Cephas,” or “I follow Christ.”
1Cor.3.22 whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas or the world or life or death or the present or the future—all are yours,
1Cor.9.5 Do we not have the right to take along a believing wife, as do the other apostles and the brothers of the Lord and Cephas?
1Cor.15.5 and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.
Gal.1.18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to visit Cephas and remained with him fifteen days.
Gal.2.7 On the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been entrusted with the gospel to the circumcised Gal.2.8 (for he who worked through Peter for his apostolic ministry to the circumcised worked also through me for mine to the Gentiles), Gal.2.9 and when James and Cephas and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given to me, they gave the right hand of fellowship to Barnabas and me, that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. Gal.2.11 But when Cephas came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he stood condemned. Gal.2.14 But when I saw that their conduct was not in step with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas before them all, “If you, though a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you force the Gentiles to live like Jews?”
1Pet.1.1 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who are elect exiles of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
2Pet.1.1 Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who have obtained a faith of equal standing with ours by the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ:
Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica
< Peter imprisoned under Herod Agrippa I >
II 9,4 -- And then, as the divine Scripture says, <Acts 12:3ff> Herod (Agrippa), upon the death of James, seeing that the deed pleased the Jews, attacked Peter also and committed him to prison, and would have slain him if he had not, by the divine appearance of an angel who came to him by night, been wonderfully released from his bonds, and thus liberated for the service of the Gospel. Such was the providence of God in respect to Peter.
< Simon Magus and Peter >
II -- [14,4] The evil deeds done by Simon Magus were first detected by the apostle Peter in Judea... [14,6] (Finally) during the reign of Claudius, the all-good and gracious Providence, which watches over all things, led Peter, that strongest and greatest of the apostles, and the one who on account of his virtue was the speaker for all the others, to Rome against this great corrupter of life. He like a noble commander of God, clad in divine armor, carried the costly merchandise of the light of the understanding from the East to those who dwelt in the West, proclaiming the light itself, and the word which brings salvation to souls, and preaching the kingdom of heaven. [15,1] And thus when the divine word had made its home among them, the power of Simon was quenched and immediately destroyed, together with the man himself...
< The Gospel of Mark >
II -- [15,1] ... So greatly did the splendor of piety illumine the minds of Peter's hearers that they were not satisfied with hearing once only, and were not content with the unwritten teaching of the divine Gospel, but with all sorts of entreaties they besought Mark, a follower of Peter, and the one whose Gospel is extant, that he would leave them a written monument of the doctrine which had been orally communicated to them. Nor did they cease until they had prevailed with the man, and had thus become the occasion of the written Gospel which bears the name of Mark. [15,2] And they say that Peter — when he had learned, through a revelation of the Spirit, of that which had been done — was pleased with the zeal of the men, and that the work obtained the sanction of his authority for the purpose of being used in the churches. Clement in the eighth book of his Hypotyposes gives this account, and with him agrees the bishop of Hierapolis named Papias. And Peter makes mention of Mark in his first epistle which they say that he wrote in Rome itself, as is indicated by him, when he calls the city, by a figure, Babylon, as he does in the following words: "The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, salutes you; and so does Marcus my son."
< Peter and Philo of Alexandra >
II 17,1 -- It is also said that Philo in the reign of Claudius became acquainted at Rome with Peter, who was then preaching there. Nor is this indeed improbable, for the work of which we have spoken, and which was composed by him some years later, clearly contains those rules of the Church which are even to this day observed among us.
< Preaching of Peter >
III 4,2 -- And in how many provinces Peter preached Christ and taught the doctrine of the new covenant to those of the circumcision is clear from his own words in his epistle already mentioned as undisputed, in which he writes to the Hebrews of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. <1 Peter 1:1>
Death of Peter
II 25,5 It is recorded that Paul was beheaded in Rome itself, and that Peter likewise was crucified under Nero. This account of Peter and Paul is substantiated by the fact that their names are preserved in the cemeteries of that place even to the present day. [25,6] It is confirmed likewise by Caius, a member of the Church, who arose under Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome. He, in a published disputation with Proclus, the leader of the Phrygian heresy, speaks as follows concerning the places where the sacred corpses of the aforesaid apostles are laid: [25,7] "But I can show the trophies of the apostles. For if you will go to the Vatican or to the Ostian way, you will find the trophies of those who laid the foundations of this church." [25,8] And that they both suffered martyrdom at the same time is stated by Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, in his epistle to the Romans, in the following words: "You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time." I have quoted these things in order that the truth of the history might be still more confirmed.
III 1,2 -- (Peter) was crucified head-downwards; for he had requested that he might suffer in this way.
III 3,1 -- One epistle of Peter, that called the first, is acknowledged as genuine. And this the ancient elders used freely in their own writings as an undisputed work. But we have learned that his extant second Epistle does not belong to the canon; yet, as it has appeared profitable to many, it has been used with the other Scriptures. [3,2] The so-called Acts of Peter, however, and the Gospel which bears his name, and the Preaching and the Apocalypse, as they are called, we know have not been universally accepted, because no ecclesiastical writer, ancient or modern, has made use of testimonies drawn from them. [3,3] But in the course of my history I shall be careful to show, in addition to the official succession, what ecclesiastical writers have from time to time made use of any of the disputed works, and what they have said in regard to the canonical and accepted writings, as well as in regard to those which are not of this class. [3,4] Such are the writings that bear the name of Peter, only one of which I know to be genuine and acknowledged by the ancient elders.
< Peter's apostolic succession >
III 2,1 -- After the martyrdom of Paul and of Peter, Linus was the first to obtain the episcopate of the church at Rome. Paul mentions him, when writing to Timothy from Rome, in the salutation at the end of the epistle.
III -- [4,3] The number and the names of those among them that became true and zealous followers of the apostles, and were judged worthy to tend the churches founded by them, it is not easy to tell, except those mentioned in the writings of Paul... [4,9] Linus, whom (Paul) mentions in the Second Epistle to Timothy <2 Timothy 4:21> as his companion at Rome, was Peter's successor in the episcopate of the church there, as has already been shown.
Peter, in the arts
As the chief of the Twelve, Peter was a major figure in Christian iconography. The aura of respect that surrounded his figure (and his association with the Papacy), however, limited for centuries his potential as a dramatic character in fiction. When in 1601 Caravaggio depicted Peter with the physical features of a "real" fisherman and worker, the painting generated controversy and scandal. Only in the 20th centuries, Peter has received more attention by novelists and filmmakers, notably, in The King of Kings (1927 DeMille), film, The Big Fisherman (1948 Douglas), novel, The Power of the Resurrection (1958 Schuster), film, Peter and Paul (1981 Day), film, and San Pietro (2005 Base), film.
- See Peter (arts) -- survey of fictional works
Peter in scholarship
- See Peter (research) -- survey of scholarly works
Pages in category "Peter (subject)"
The following 116 pages are in this category, out of 116 total.
- St. Peter (1185 Monreale), art
- Washing the Feet (1185 Monreale), art
- St. Peter (1320 Master of Sant'Abbondio), art
- Crucifixion of St Peter (1320 Giotto), art
- Crucifixion of St Peter (1370 Lorenzo Veneziano), art
- Crucifixion of St Peter (1426 Masaccio), art
- Transfiguration of Jesus (1516 Pordenone), art
- Transfiguration of Christ (1517 Perugino), art
- Transfiguration of Christ (1520 David), art
- Transfiguration of Jesus (1520 Raphael), art
- Transfiguration of Jesus (1530 Savoldo), art
- Peregrinatio apostolorum Petri et Pauli (1542 Erasmus), book
- Transfiguration of Christ (1556 Veronese), art
- The Rocke of the Churche (1567 Sander), book
- A Discourse of Peters Lyfe, Peregrination and Death (1572 Carlile), book
- Transfiguration of Christ (1594 Carracci), art
- St Peter Penitent (1600 Reni), art
- Crucifixion of St. Peter (1601 Caravaggio), art
- Domine quo vadis? (1602 Carracci), art
- Crucifixion of St. Peter (1605 Reni), art
- Transfiguration of Jesus (1605 Rubens), art
- Bust of St Peter (1608 Cordier), art
- Denial of St. Peter (1610 Caravaggio), art
- St Peter (1612 Rubens), art
- Liberation of St. Peter (1615 Caracciolo), art
- Taking of Jesus (1617 Baburen), art
- Liberation of St. Peter (1618 Honthorst), art
- Martyrdom of St Peter (1619 Guercino), art
- Liberation of St. Peter (1619 Steenwyck), art
- Peter's conflict with Simon Magus (1620 Nucci), art
- Liberation of Saint Peter (1621 Lanfranco), art
- Denial of St. Peter (1623 Honthorst), art
- Denial of St. Peter (1624 Baburen), art
- St. Peter's Basilica, Rome (1626 Bramante), art
- St Peter Freed from Prison (1630 Mola), art
- Lament of St. Peter (1630 Vignon), art
- St Peter and Cornelius the Centurion (1640 Cavallino), art
- St Peter (1640 Finelli), art
- Crucifixion of St Peter (1643 Bourdon), art
- The Death of Sapphira (1652 Poussin), art
- St. Peter and St. James Cure the Lame Man (1655 Poussin), art
- St Peter (1659 Puget), art
- S. Pietro piangente (St. Peter Weeping / 1664 Ziani / Guadagni), oratorio
- Le lachrime di S. Pietro (The Tears of St. Peter / 1666 Sances / Sbarra), oratorio
- Gesù Cristo negato da Pietro (1719 Fux / Pariati), oratorio
- Sanctus Petrus et Sancta Maria Magdalena (1730 Hasse), oratorio
- San Pietro in Cesarea (1734 Caldara / Zeno), oratorio
- Petri contritio in Passione Domini Nostri Jesu Christi (Peter's Remorse in the Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ / 1754 Cocchi), oratorio
- Der reumütige Petrus (1770 Haydn / Reichssiegel), oratorio
- The Martyrdom of St. Peter and St. Paul (1834 Burgess), poetry
- St. Peter (1872 Paine), oratorio
- (+) Saint Pierre et les premières années du Christianisme (Saint Peter and the First Years of Christianity / 1886 Fouard), book
- Saint Peter and the First Years of Christianity (1892 Fouard), book (English ed.)
- St. Peter's Church, Jaffa (1894), art
- Le memorie degli apostoli Pietro e Paolo in Roma (1894 Marucchi), book
- Simon Peter, Fisherman (1904 Upham), fiction
- The Apocryphal Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew and Thomas (1909 Pick), book
- The Recall of Love (1910 Connor), novel
- Simon Peter, Shepherd (1910 Upham), fiction
- San Pietro e i primi anni del cristianesimo (1920 Fouard / Albera), book (Italian ed.)
- (+) Peter: Prince of Apostles (1927 Foakes-Jackson), book
- Epochs in the Life of Simon Peter (1933 Robertson), book
- (++) The Big Fisherman (1948 Douglas), novel
- (+) Saint Peter, the Apostle (1948 Walsh), non-fiction
- The Pilgrimage Play (1949 Stayer), feature film
- (+) Petrus: Jünger, Apostel, Märtyrer (Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr / 1952 Cullmann), book
- Encounter: The Vigil (1953), TV episode
- (+) Peter: Disciple, Apostle, Martyr = Petrus: Jünger, Apostel, Märtyrer (1953 @1952 Cullmann / Filson), book (English ed.)
- Der Fischer Simon Petrus (1953 Frieberger), novel
- Fisher of Men (1954 Frieberger), novel (English ed.)
- Al-Sayyad al-kabir = The Big Fisherman (1957 @1948 Douglas / Dawud), novel (Arabic ed.)
- The Power of the Resurrection (1958 Schuster), feature film
- (+) The Big Fisherman (1959 Borzage), feature film
- The Big Fisherman (1959 Lawrence), play
- (+) Upon This Rock (1963 Slaughter), novel
- The Sins of Herod (1968 Slaughter), novel
- Peter in Rome (1969 O'Connor), book
- Atti degli Apostoli (Acts of the Apostles / 1969 Rossellini), TV mini-series
- Peter in the New Testament (1973 Brown / Donfried / Reumann), edited volume
- Swiadkowie Jezusa (1975 Malinski), novel
- Il discorso di Pietro all'assemblea apostolica (1976 Panimolle), book
- Simon-Petrus (1980 Pesch), book
- Peter and Paul (1981 Day), TV mini-series
- From Clay to Rock (1981 Flynn), non-fiction
- The Bones of St. Peter (1982 Walsh), non-fiction
- The Illusionist (1984 Mason), novel
- The Adversary (1985 Kabal), novel
- (+) Upon This Rock (1987 Murphy), novel
- Peter and the Beloved Disciple (1989 Quast), book
- Pedro en la iglesia primitiva (1991 Aguirre Monasterio), book
- D'un Temple à l'autre. Pierre et l'Eglise primitive de Jérusalem (1992 Grappe), book
- Sobre esta roca (Upon This Rock / 1992 Murphy / Perea), novel (Spanish ed.)
- Acts (1994 Bergh), feature film
- Tú eres piedra (1994 Capo), novel
- (++) St Peter: A Biography (1994 Grant), book
- Peter: Apostle for the Whole Church (1994 Perkins), book
- Images de Pierre aux deux premiers siècles (1995 Grappe), book
- Petrus: Fischer, Fels und Funktionär (2001 Böttrich), book
- The Fisherman (2003 Huntsperger), novel
- Peter: The Myth, the Man and the Writings (2003 Lapham), book
- Jerusalem’s Rain (2003 Lliteras), novel
- Irmãos de Fé (Brothers in Faith / 2004 Góes), feature film
- San Pietro (St. Peter / 2005 Base), TV mini-series
- (++) Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene (2006 Ehrman), book
- Der unterschätzte Petrus: zwei Studien (2006 Hengel), book
- Simone Bariona = Simon Bar Jona (2007 Parazzoli), non-fiction
- Peter in the Gospel of John (2007 Blaine), book
- Simón Pedro, Pablo de Tarso y María Magdalena = Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene (2007 Ehrman / Noriega), book (Spanish ed.)
- El testamento del pescador (2007 Vidal Manzanares), novel
- Pietro, Paolo e Maria Maddalena = Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene (2008 @2006 Ehrman / Valdré), book (Italian ed.)
- Петр, Павел и Мария Магдалина = Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene (2009 Ehrman), book (Russian ed.)
- Petrus in Rom (2009 Zwierlein), book
- Naśladowcy Jezusa = Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene (2010 Ehrman / Hejmej), book (Polish ed.)
- The Passion (2012 Grifhorst), TV film
- The Bible (2013 Downey, Burnett), TV mini-series
- Petrus und Paulus in Jerusalem und Rom (2013 Zwierlein), book