The Bible as It Was (1997 Kugel), book

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The Bible as It Was (1997) is a book by James L. Kugel.


"This is a companion to the Bible like no other. Leading us chapter by chapter through key biblical stories - from Creation and the Tree of Knowledge through the Exodus from Egypt and journey to the Promised Land - James Kugel shows how a group of anonymous ancient interpreters radically transformed the Bible and made it into the book that has come down to us today. Here, for the first time, we can witness the development of the Bible "As It Was" at the start of the common era - the Bible as we know it."--Publisher description.

Editions and translations

Published in Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997.


The world of ancient biblical interpreters -- The creation of the world -- Adam and Eve -- Cain and Abel -- Noah and the flood -- The tower of Babel -- Abraham journeys from Chaldea -- Melchizedek -- The trials of Abraham -- Lot and Lot's wife -- Jacob and Esau -- Jacob and the angel -- Dinah -- Joseph's ups and downs -- Jacob's sons in Egypt -- Growing up in Pharaoh's court -- The exodus from Egypt -- The Red Sea -- Into the wilderness -- At Mt. Sinai -- The golden calf -- Worship in the wilderness -- Trouble along the way -- The bronze serpent, Balaam, and Phinehas -- The life of Torah -- Afterword

External links

  • [ Google Books]