Category:Twelve Apostles (subject)
The Twelve Apostles were a group of disciples chosen by Jesus of Nazareth as the leadership of the new movement.
< See Choosing of the Twelve -- Mission of the Twelve -- Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem -- Last Supper -- Arrest of Jesus -- Gathering of the Twelve at Jerusalem -- Ascension of Jesus -- Christian Pentecost -- Choice of the Seven -- Death of Mary >
The Twelve Apostles are recorded in earliest Christian sources as a group of disciples chosen by Jesus of Nazareth as representing the eschatological reunion of the Twelve Tribes in the Kingdom of God. The group was active during the preaching of Jesus, accompanying him in the crucial moments of his mission, especially in his last days in Jerusalem. Ancient sources however could not agree on the same list of names
The Acts of Apostles presents the Twelve Apostles reunited again at Jerusalem after the Ascension of Jesus. They are the foundations of the new movement together with the Family of Jesus. Judas Iscariot the betrayer, was replaced with Matthias as a witness of the preaching of Jesus since the Baptism of John.
The Twelve Apostles are mentioned again, this time as leaders of the "Hebrew Christians", while the Seven Deacons are the leaders of the "Hellenist Christians". This is the last reference to the Twelve in the earliest Christian literature. We also know very little about the whereabouts of the members of the group, with the exception of Peter, John, Thomas and James son of Zebedee (whose execution is reported by Acts under Herod Agrippa I around 41-44).
According to later Christian traditions, the Twelve reunited again as a group around Mary when she passed away and her body was assumed to heaven. There are then numerous legends about their preaching all around the world and their martyrdom.
Lists of the Twelve Apostles
- Simon Peter
- Andrew, brother of Simon Peter
- James son of Zebedee (James the Elder, James the Greater)
- John son of Zebedee
- Bartholomew (Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke-Acts), or Nathanael (Gospel of John)
- James son of Alphaeus (James the Minor, James the Less)
- Simon the Zealot
- Thaddeus (Mark, Matthew), or Jude (Luke)
- Judas Iscariot -- then replaced by Matthias after the betrayal of Judas and the death of Jesus
Twelve Apostles, in ancient sources
First Letter to the Corinthians
1Cor.15.5 -- and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the Twelve.
Gospel of Mark
Mark.3.14 -- And he appointed Twelve (whom he also named apostles) so that they might be with him and he might send them out to preach
Mark.3.16 He appointed the Twelve: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter);
Mark.4.10 And when he was alone, those around him with the twelve asked him about the parables.
Mark.6.7 And he called the twelve and began to send them out two by two, and gave them authority over the unclean spirits.
Mark.9.35 And he sat down and called the twelve. And he said to them, “If anyone would be first, he must be last of all and servant of all.”
Mark.10.32 And they were on the road, going up to Jerusalem, and Jesus was walking ahead of them. And they were amazed, and those who followed were afraid. And taking the twelve again, he began to tell them what was to happen to him, Mark.11.11 And he entered Jerusalem and went into the temple. And when he had looked around at everything, as it was already late, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.
Mark.14.10 Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the twelve, went to the chief priests in order to betray him to them.
Mark.14.17 And when it was evening, he came with the twelve.
Mark.14.20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who is dipping bread into the dish with me. Mark.14.43 And immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas came, one of the twelve, and with him a crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. one of the Twelve (Mk 3:18; Mt 10:2; Lk 6:14; Acts 1:13).
Gospel of Matthew
Matt.10.1 And he called to him his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every affliction.
Matt.10.2 The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;
Matt.10.5 These twelve Jesus sent out, instructing them, “Go nowhere among the Gentiles and enter no town of the Samaritans,
Matt.11.1 When Jesus had finished instructing his twelve disciples, he went on from there to teach and preach in their cities.
Matt.19.28 Jesus said to them, “Truly, I say to you, in the new world, when the Son of Man will sit on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Matt.20.17 And as Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, he took the twelve disciples aside, and on the way he said to them, Matt.26.14 Then one of the twelve, whose name was Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests Matt.26.20 When it was evening, he reclined at table with the twelve. Matt.26.47 While he was still speaking, Judas came, one of the twelve, and with him a great crowd with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and the elders of the people.
Gospel of Luke
Luke.6.13 And when day came, he called his disciples and chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles:
Luke.8.1 Soon afterward he went on through cities and villages, proclaiming and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. And the twelve were with him,
Luke.9.1 And he called the twelve together and gave them power and authority over all demons and to cure diseases,
Luke.9.12 Now the day began to wear away, and the twelve came and said to him, “Send the crowd away to go into the surrounding villages and countryside to find lodging and get provisions, for we are here in a desolate place.”
Luke.18.31 And taking the twelve, he said to them, “See, we are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written about the Son of Man by the prophets will be accomplished.
Luke.22.3 Then Satan entered into Judas called Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve.
Luke.22.30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Luke.22.47 While he was still speaking, there came a crowd, and the man called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He drew near to Jesus to kiss him,
Acts of Apostles
Acts.6.2 And the Twelve summoned the full number of the disciples and said, “It is not right that we should give up preaching the word of God to serve tables.
Gospel of John
John.6.67 -- So Jesus said to the Twelve, “Do you want to go away as well?”
John.6.70 -- Jesus answered them, “Did I not choose you, the Twelve? And yet one of you is a devil.”
John.6.71 He spoke of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot, for he, one of the Twelve, was going to betray him.
John.20.24 -- Now Thomas, one of the Twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came.
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